General elections to parliament are a central tool characterising a western-styled democracy. in Burma, the British started to introduce it in 1922 at least in the central parts of their new colony. Only 6.9% of the small number of eligible voters participated. Since then, some more 20 general elections have been held in Burma and Myanmar. The voter turnout rose, but a functioning democratic system did not emerge. The last elections of November 2020 were nullified by the military, an action that gave rise to a new phase of the long-standing civil war. The following essays provide details on the polls held and their constitutional and political contexts.

0 Introduction: Outline of the Study
0 Introduction.pdf
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Prolgue to Part A: A "Historical Accident" and its Aftermath
1 - Prologue Part A.pdf
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21 November 1922: An Election Boycotted - or Ignored - by the People
2 - A1 1922.pdf
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17 November 1925 and 5 November 1928: An Interim Period of Shifting Alliances
3 A-2 1925 and 1928.pdf
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9 November 1932: A Hihgly Confusing Plebiecite
4 - A3 1932.pdf
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26 November 1936: Setting the Stage for Political No-Confidence
5- A4- 1936.pdf
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Epilogue to Part A: Split Opposition to British Style Political Modernity
6 - Epilogue Part A.pdf
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Intrermezzo 1: The Japanese Peiod (1942-1945)
7 Intermezzo 1.pdf
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Prologue to Part B (1945 - 1962): Independent Burma's First Parliamentary Period Created by a Soldier-Politician
8 Prologue Part B.pdf
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9 April 1947: One State - One Leader - One League
9 B1 - 1947.pdf
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1951: An Election in Stages - an Anti-Climax
10 - B2 1951.pdf
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27 Aoril 1956: The Door Opener for a Part-Time Military Led Government
11 B3 - 1956.pdf
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6 February 1960: Clean and Fair – Followed by a Very Short Legislative Period
12 B4 - 1960.pdf
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Epilogue to Part B: Elections Held in a Highly Fragmented Context
13 B -Epilogue.pdf
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Intermezzo 2: The Burmese Way to Socialism (1962-1988)
14 Intermezzo 2.pdf
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1988-2021. Military Conceived Democracy . A Variety of Transitions between Two Military Coups
15 Prologie to Part C.pdf
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27 May 1990: From Zero to Victory and Back
16 C 1990.pdf
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7 November 2010 - A New Constitution and an Election Boycott
17 C 2010.pdf
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1 April 12012 – A Much-noticed By-Election and its Manifold Contexts
18 C 2012.pdf
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8 November 2015: Another almost Clean Sweep
19 C 2015.pdf
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22 Bibliography.pdf
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